Reader's Encyclopedia

Pulitzer Prizes

Annual awards in journalism and letters made by the trustees of Columbia University. They were endowed by the will of Joseph Pulitzer, who also left money to found the University 's School of Journalism. The nominees are screened by juries appointed in each category and recommended to the trustees by the Advisory Board on the Pulitzer Prizes.

There are eight journalism awards: to a newspaper, for public service, and for " distinguished examples " of editorial writing, cartooning, news photography, and national, international, local spot news, and local investigative reporting. In letters, the awards are for distinguished works by American authors in the fields of fiction, U.S. history and biography, drama, poetry, and (since 1962) for a work not eligible in any other existing category. There are also a prize for a larger musical work, and four fellowships.

Literary works awarded the Pulitzer Prize are:

Fiction 1918, Ernest Poole, His Family; 1919, Booth Tarkington, The Magnificent Ambersons; 1920, none; 1921, Edith Wharton, The Age of Innocence; 1922, Booth Tarkington, Alice Adams; 1923, Willa Cather, One of Ours; 1924, Margaret Wilson, The Able McLaughlins; 1925, Edna Ferber, So Big; 1926, Sinclair Lewis (author declined), Arrowsmith; 1927, Louis Bromfield, Early Autumn; 1928, Thornton Wilder, Bridge of San Luis Rey; 1929, Julia M. Peterkin, Scarlet Sister Mary; 1930, Oliver La Farge, Laughing Boy; 1931, Margaret Ayer Barnes, Years of Grace; 1932, Pearl S. Buck, The Good Earth; 1933, T. S. Stribling, The Store; 1934, Caroline Miller, Lamb in His Bosom; 1935, Josephine W. Johnson, Now in November; 1936, Harold L. Davis, Honey in the Horn; 1937, Margaret Mitchell, Gone with the Wind; 1938, John P. Marquand, The Late George Apley; 1939, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, The Yearling; 1940, John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath; 1941, none; 1942, Ellen Glasgow, In This Our Life; 1943, Upton Sinclair, Dragon's Teeth; 1944, Martin Flavin, Journey in the Dark; 1945, John Hersey, A Bell for Adano; 1946, none; 1947, Robert Penn Warren, All the King's Men; 1948, James A. Michener, Tales of the South Pacific; 1949, James Gould Cozzens, Guard of Honor; 1950, A. B. Guthrie, Jr., The Way West; 1951, Conrad Richter, The Town; 1952, Herman Wouk, The Caine Mutiny; 1953, Ernest Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea; 1954, none; 1955, William Faulkner, A Fable; 1956, MacKinlay Kantor, Andersonville; 1957, none; 1958, James Agee, A Death in the Family; 1959, Robert Lewis Taylor, The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters; 1960, Allen Drury, Advise and Consent; 1961, Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird; 1962, Edwin O'Connor, The Edge of Sadness; 1963, William Faulkner (posthumous), The Reivers; 1964, none; 1965, Shirley Ann Grau, The Keepers of the House; 1966, Katherine Anne Porter, Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter; 1967, Bernard Malamud, The Fixer; 1968, William Styron, The Confessions of Nat Turner; 1969, N. Scott Momaday, House Made of Dawn; 1970, Jean Stafford, Collected Stories; 1971, none; 1972, Wallace Stegner, Angle of Repose; 1973, Eudora Welty, The Optimist's Daughter; 1974, none; 1975, Michael Shaara, The Killer Angels; 1976, Saul Bellow, Humboldt 's Gift; 1977, none; 1978, James Alan McPherson, Elbow Room; 1979, John Cheever, The Stories of John Cheever; 1980, Norman Mailer, The Executioner 's Song; 1981, John Kennedy Toole, A Confederacy of Dunces; 1982, John Updike, Rabbit Is Rich; 1983, Alice Walker, The Color Purple; 1984, William Kennedy, Ironweed; 1985, Alison Lurie, Foreign Affairs; 1986, Larry McMurtry, Lonesome Dove; 1987, Peter Taylor, A Summons to Memphis; 1988, Toni Morrison, Beloved; 1989, Anne Tyler, Breathing Lessons.

Drama 1918, Jesse Lynch Williams, Why Marry?; 1919, none; 1920, Eugene O'Neill, Beyond the Horizon; 1921, Zona Gale, Miss Lulu Bett; 1922, Eugene O'Neill, Anna Christie; 1923, Owen Davis, Icebound; 1924, Hatcher Hughes, Hell - Bent for Heaven; 1925, Sidney Howard, They Knew What They Wanted; 1926, George Kelly, Craig's Wife; 1927, Paul Green, In Abraham's Bosom; 1928, Eugene O 'Neill, Strange Interlude; 1929, Elmer Rice, Street Scene; 1930, Marc Connelly, The Green Pastures; 1931, Susan Glaspell, Alison's House; 1932, George S. Kaufman, Morrie Ryskind, and Ira Gershwin, Of Thee I Sing; 1933, Maxwell Anderson, Both Your Houses; 1934, Sidney Kingsley, Men in White; 1935, Zoe Akins, The Old Maid; 1936, Robert E. Sherwood, Idiot's Delight; 1937, George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart, You Can ' t Take It With You; 1938, Thornton Wilder, Our Town; 1939, Robert E. Sherwood, Abe Lincoln in Illinois; 1940, William Saroyan, The Time of Your Life; 1941, Robert E. Sherwood, There Shall Be No Night; 1942, none; 1943, Thornton Wilder, The Skin of Our Teeth; 1944, none; 1945, Mary Chase, Harvey; 1946, Russel Crouse and Howard Lindsay, State of the Union; 1947, none; 1948, Tennessee Williams, A Streetcar Named Desire; 1949, Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman; 1950, Richard Rodgers, Oscar Hammerstein II, and Joshua Logan, South Pacific; 1951, none; 1952, Joseph Kramm, The Shrike; 1953, William Inge, Picnic; 1954, John Patrick, Teahouse of the August Moon; 1955, Tennessee Williams, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof; 1956, Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett, The Diary of Anne Frank; 1957, Eugene O ' Neill, Long Day's Journey Into Night; 1958, Ketti Frings, Look Homeward, Angel; 1959, Archibald MacLeish, J. B.; 1960, George Abbott, Jerome Weidman, Sheldon Harnick, and Jerry Bock, Fiorello!; 1961, Tad Mosel, All the Way Home; 1962, Frank Loesser and Abe Burrows, How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying; 1963, none; 1964, none; 1965, Frank Gilroy, The Subject Was Roses; 1966, none; 1967, Edward Albee, A Delicate Balance; 1968, none; 1969, Howard Sackler, The Great White Hope; 1970, Charles Gordone, No Place to Be Somebody; 1971, Paul Zindel, The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man - in - the - Moon Marigolds; 1972, none; 1973, Jason Miller, That Championship Season; 1974, none; 1975, Edward Albee, Seascape; 1976, conceived by Michael Bennett, A Chorus Line; 1977, Michael Cristofer, The Shadow Box; 1978, Donald L. Coburn, The Gin Game; 1979, Sam Shepard, Buried Child; 1980, Lanford Wilson, Talley's Folly; 1981, Beth Henley, Crimes of the Heart; 1982, Charles Fuller, A Soldier's Play; 1983, Marsha Norman, ' Night Mother; 1984, David Mamet, Glengarry Glen Ross; 1985, Stephen Sondheim and James Lapine, Sunday in the Park with George; 1986, none; 1987, August Wilson, Fences; 1988, Alfred Uhry, Driving Miss Daisy; 1989, Wendy Wasserstein, The Heidi Chronicles.

Poetry 1922, Edwin Arlington Robinson, Collected Poems; 1923, Edna St. Vincent Millay, The Ballad of the Harp - Weaver, A Few Figs from Thistles, and other poems; 1924, Robert Frost, New Hampshire: A Poem with Notes and Grace Notes; 1925, Edwin Arlington Robinson, The Man Who Died Twice; 1926, Amy Lowell, What 's O'Clock; 1927, Leonora Speyer, Fiddler's Farewell; 1928, Edwin Arlington Robinson, Tristram; 1929, Stephen Vincent Ben et, John Brown's Body; 1930, Conrad Aiken, Selected Poems; 1931, Robert Frost,

Collected Poems; 1932, George Dillon, The Flowering Stone; 1933, Archibald MacLeish, Conquistador; 1934, Robert Hillyer, Collected Verse;

1935, Audrey Wurdemann, Bright Ambush; 1936, Robert P. Tristram Coffin, Strange Holiness; 1937, Robert Frost, A Further Range; 1938, Marya Zaturenska, Cold Morning Sky; 1939, John Gould Fletcher, Selected Poems; 1940, Mark Van Doren, Collected Poems; 1941, Leonard Bacon, Sunderland Capture; 1942, William Rose Benet, The Dust Which Is God; 1943, Robert Frost, A Witness Tree; 1944, Stephen Vincent Ben et, Western Star; 1945, Karl Shapiro, V - Letter and Other Poems; 1946, none; 1947, Robert Lowell, Lord Weary's Castle; 1948, W. H. Auden, The Age of Anxiety; 1949, Peter Viereck, Terror and Decorum; 1950, Gwendolyn Brooks, Annie Allen; 1951, Carl Sandburg, Complete Poems; 1952, Marianne Moore, Collected Poems; 1953, Archibald MacLeish, Collected Poems 1917 - 1952; 1954, Theodore Roethke, The Waking; 1955, Wallace Stevens, Collected Poems; 1956, Elizabeth Bishop, Poems, North and South; 1957, Richard Wilbur, Things of This World; 1958, Robert Penn Warren, Promises; Poems 1954 - 1956; 1959, Stanley Kunitz, Selected Poems, 1928 - 1958; 1960, W. D. Snodgrass, Heart's Needle; 1961, Phyllis McGinley, Times Three: Selected Verse from Three Decades; 1962, Alan Dugan, Poems; 1963, William Carlos Williams (posthumous), Pictures from Brueghel; 1964, Louis Simpson, At the End of the Open Road; 1965, John Berryman, 77 Dream Songs; 1966, Richard Eberhart, Selected Poems; 1967, Anne Sexton, Live or Die; 1968, Anthony Hecht, The Hard Hours; 1969, George Oppen, Of Being Numerous; 1970, Richard Howard, Untitled Subjects; 1971, William S. Merwin, The Carrier of Ladders; 1972, James Wright, Collected Poems; 1973, Maxine Winokur Kumin,

Up Country; 1974, Robert Lowell, The Dolphin; 1975, Gary Snyder, Turtle Island; 1976, John Ashbery, Self - Portrait in a Convex Mirror; 1977, James Merrill, Divine Comedies; 1978, Howard Nemerov, Collected Poems; 1979, Robert Penn Warren, Now and Then; 1980, Donald Rodney Justice, Selected Poems; 1981, James Schuyler, The Morning of the Poem; 1982, Sylvia Plath (posthumous), The Collected Poems; 1983, Galway Kinnell,

Selected Poems; 1984, Mary Oliver, American Primitive; 1985, Carolyn Kizer, Yin; 1986, Henry Taylor, The Flying Change; 1987, Rita Dove, Thomas and Beulah; 1988, William Meredith, Partial Accounts: New and Selected Poems; 1989, Richard Wilbur, New and Collected Poems.

History 1917, J. J. Jusserand, With Americans of Past and Present Days; 1918, James Ford Rhodes, History of the Civil War; 1919, none; 1920, Justin H. Smith, The War with Mexico; 1921, William Sowden Sims, with Burton J. Hendrick, The Victory at Sea; 1922, James Truslow Adams, The Founding of New England; 1923, Charles Warren, The Supreme Court in United States History; 1924, Charles Howard McIlwain, The American Revolution: A Constitutional Interpretation; 1925, Frederick L. Paxton, A History of the American Frontier; 1926, Edward Channing, History of the U.S.; 1927, Samuel Flagg Bemis, Pinckney's Treaty; 1928, Vernon Louis Parrington, Main Currents in American Thought; 1929, Fred A. Shannon, The Organization and Administration of the Union Army, 1861 - 65; 1930, Claude H. Van Tyne, The War of Independence; 1931, Bernadotte E. Schmitt, The Coming of the War: 1914; 1932, Gen. John J. Pershing, My Experiences in the World War; 1933, Frederick J. Turner, The Significance of Sections in American History; 1934, Herbert Agar, The People's Choice; 1935, Charles McLean Andrews, The Colonial Period of American History; 1936, Andrew C. McLaughlin, A Constitutional History of the United States; 1937, Van Wyck Brooks, The Flowering of New England; 1938, Paul Herman Buck, The Road to Reunion 1865 - 1900; 1939, Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines; 1940, Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years; 1941, Marcus Lee Hansen, The Atlantic Migration 1607 - 1860; 1942, Margaret Leech, Reveille in Washington; 1943, Esther Forbes, Paul Revere and the World He Lived In; 1944, Merle Curti, The Growth of American Thought; 1945, Stephen Bonsal, Unfinished Business; 1946, Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Age of Jackson; 1947, Dr. James Phinney Baxter 3d, Scientists Against Time; 1948, Bernard De Voto, Across the Wide Missouri; 1949, Roy F. Nichols, The Disruption of American Democracy; 1950, O. W. Larkin, Art and Life in America; 1951, R. Carlyle Buley, The Old Northwest, Pioneer Period 1815 - 1840; 1952, Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted; 1953, George Dangerfield, The Era of Good Feelings; 1954, Bruce Catton, A Stillness at Appomattox; 1955, Paul Horgan, Great River: The Rio Grande in North American History; 1956, Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform; 1957, George F. Kennan, Russia Leaves the War; 1958, Bray Hammond, Banks and Politics in America -- From the Revolution to the Civil War; 1959, Leonard D. White and Jean Schneider, The Republican Era: 1869 - 1901; 1960, Margaret Leech, In the Days of McKinley; 1961, Herbert Feis, Between War and Peace: The Potsdam Conference; 1962, Lawrence H. Gipson, The Triumphant Empire, Thunder - Clouds Gather in the West; 1963, Constance Green, Washington, Village and Capital; 1964, Sumner Chilton Powell, Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town; 1965, Irwin Unger, The Greenback Era; 1966, Perry Miller, Life of the Mind in America; 1967, William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and Scientist in the Winning of the American West; 1968, Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution; 1969, Leonard W. Levy, Origins of the Fifth Amendment; 1970, Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department; 1971, James McGregor Burns, Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom; 1972, Carl N. Degler, Neither Black nor White. Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States; 1973, Michael Kammen, People of Paradox: An Inquiry Concerning the Origin of American Civilization; 1974, Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans: The Democratic Experience, Vol. 3; 1975, Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time; 1976, Paul Horgan, Lamy of Santa Fe; 1977, David M. Potter (posthumous), The Impending Crisis: 1841 - 1861; 1978, Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., The Invisible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business; 1979, Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in Law and Politics; 1980, Leon F. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long; 1981, Lawrence A. Cremin, American Education: The National Experience, 1783 - 1876; 1982, C. Vann Woodward, editor, Mary Chestnut's Civil War; 1983, Rhys L. Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia, 1740 - 1790; 1984, none; 1985, Thomas K. McCraw,

The Prophets of Regulation; 1986, Walter A. McDougall, The Heavens and the Earth; 1987, Bernard Bailyn, Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution; 1988, Robert V. Bruce, The Launching of Modern American Science 1846 - 1876; 1989, Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954 - 63.

Biography 1917, Laura E. Richards and Maude Howe Elliott, assisted by Florence Howe Hall, Julia Ward Howe; 1918, William Cabell Bruce, Benjamin Franklin, Self - Revealed; 1919, Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams;

1920, Albert J. Beveridge, The Life of John Marshall; 1921, Edward Bok, The Americanization of Edward Bok; 1922, Hamlin Garland, A Daughter of the Middle Border; 1923, Burton J. Hendrick, The Life and Letters of Walter H. Page; 1924, Michael Pupin, From Immigrant to Inventor; 1925, M. A. DeWolfe Howe, Barrett Wendell and His Letters; 1926, Harvey Cushing, Life of Sir William Osler; 1927, Emory Holloway, Whitman, An Interpretation in Narrative; 1928, Charles Edward Russell, The American Orchestra and Theodore Thomas; 1929, Burton J. Hendrick, The Training of an American: The Earlier Life and Letters of Walter II. Page; 1930, Marquis James, The Raven (Sam Houston); 1931, Henry James, Charles W. Eliot; 1932, Henry F. Pringle, Theodore Roosevelt; 1933, Allan Nevins, Grover Cleveland; 1934, Tyler Dennett, John Hay; 1935, Douglas Southall Freeman, R. E. Lee; 1936, Ralph Barton Perry, The Thought and Character of William James; 1937, Allan Nevins, Hamilton Fish: The Inner History of the Grant Administration; 1938, divided between Odell Shepard, Pedlar'sProgress, and Marquis James, Andrew Jackson; 1939, Carl Van Doren, Benjamin Franklin; 1940, Ray Stannard Baker, Woodrow Wilson, Life and Letters; 1941, Ola Elizabeth Winslow, Jonathan Edwards; 1942, Forrest Wilson, Crusader in Crinoline; 1943, Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea; 1944, Carleton Mabee, The American Leonardo: The Life of Samuel F. B. Morse; 1945, Russel Blaine Nye, George Bancroft: Brahmin Rebel; 1946, Linnie Marsh Wolfe, Son of the Wilderness; 1947, William Allen White, The Autobiography of William Allen White; 1948, Margaret Clapp, Forgotten First Citizen: John Bigelow; 1949, Robert E. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins; 1950, Samuel Flagg Bemis, John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy; 1951, Margaret Louise Coit, John C. Calhoun: American Portrait; 1952, Merlo J. Pusey, Charles Evans Hughes; 1953, David J. Mays, Edmund Pendleton 1721 - 1803; 1954, Charles A. Lindbergh, The Spirit of St. Louis; 1955, William S. White, The Taft Story; 1956, Talbot F. Hamlin, Benjamin Henry Latrobe;

1957, John F. Kennedy, Profiles in Courage; 1958, Douglas Southall Freeman (posthumous), George Washington, vols I - VI, John Alexander Carroll and Mary Wells Ashworth, vol VII; 1959, Arthur Walworth, Woodrow Wilson, American Prophet; 1960, Samuel Eliot Morison, John Paul Jones; 1961, David Donald, Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War; 1962, none; 1963, Leon Edel, Henry James: The Conquest of London and the Middle Years; 1964, Walter Jackson Bate, John Keats; 1965, Ernest Samuels, Henry Adams; 1966, Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., A Thousand Days; 1967, Justin Kaplan, Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain; 1968, George F. Kennan, Memoirs, 1925 - 1950; 1969, B. L. Reid, The Man from New York; 1970, T. Harry Williams, Huey Long; 1971, Lawrance Thompson, Robert Frost: The Years of Triumph, 1915 - 1938; 1972, Joseph P. Lash, Eleanor and Franklin; The Story of Their Relationship Based on Eleanor Roosevelt's Private Papers; 1973, W. A. Swanbert, Luce and His Empire; 1974, Louis Sheaffer, O'Neill, Son and Artist; 1975, Robert A. Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York; 1976, Richard W. B. Lewis, Edith Wharton: A Biography; 1977, John E. Mack, A Prince of Our Disorder; 1978, Walter Jackson Bate, Samuel Johnson; 1979, Leonard Baker, Days of Sorrow and Pain: Leo Baeck and the Berlin Jews; 1980, Edmund Morris, The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt; 1981, Robert K. Massie, Peter the Great; 1982, William S. McFeely, Grant: A Biography; 1983, Russell Baker, Growing Up; 1984, Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington; 1985, Kenneth Silverman, The Life and Times of Cotton Mather; 1986, Elizabeth Frank, Louise Bogan: A Portrait; 1987, David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference; 1988, David Herbert Donald, Look Homeward: A Life of Thomas Wolfe; 1989, Richard Ellmann, Oscar Wilde.

General Nonfiction 1962, Theodore H. White, The Making of the President, 1960; 1963, Barbara W. Tuchman, The Guns of August; 1964, Richard Hofstadter, Anti - Intellectualism in American Life; 1965, Howard Mumford Jones, O Strange New World; 1966, Edwin Way Teale, Wandering Through Winter; 1967, David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture; 1968, Will and Ariel Durant, Rousseau and Revolution; 1969, Rene Jules Dubos, So Human an Animal, and Norman Mailer, The Armies of the Night; 1970, Erik H. Erikson, Gandhi's Truth; 1971, John Toland, The Rising Sun; 1972, Barbara W. Tuchman, Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911 - 1945; 1973, Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam, and Robert M. Coles, Children of Crisis, vols 1 and 2; 1974, Ernest Becker, The Denial of Death; 1975, Annie Dillard, Pilgrim at Tinker Creek; 1976, Robert N. Butler, Why Survive? Being Old in America;

1977, William W. Warner, Beautiful Swimmers: Watermen, Crabs and the Chesapeake Bay; 1978, Carl Sagan, The Dragons of Eden; 1979, Edward O. Wilson, On Human Nature; 1980, Douglas R. Hofstadter, Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid; 1981, Carl E. Schorske, Fin - de - Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture; 1982, Tracy Kidder, The Soul of a New Machine; 1983, Susan Sheehan, Is There No Place on Earth for Me?; 1984, Paul Starr, Social Transformation of American Medicine; 1985, Studs Terkel, The Good War: An Oral History of World War II; 1986, Joseph Lelyveld, Move Your Shadow, and J. Anthony Lukas, Common Ground; 1987, David K. Shipler, Arab and Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land; 1988, Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb; 1989, Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam.